Summary of Optogenetics Studies in Pain and Itch Research

Paper Opsins(s) Expression System Activation/Inhibition Population Pain Model(s) Light Delivery Location Stimulus Properties Behavioral Assays and Measurements Electrophysiological Measurements Biochemical Measurements Notes
Daou, I. et al. Remote Optogenetic Activation and Sensitization of Pain Pathways in Freely Moving Mice. Journal of Neuroscience 33, 18631–18640 (2013). ChR2(H134R) Ai32 transgenic line Activation Nav1.8+ Nociceptors None Transdermal, fiber-coupled laser Plantar hindpaw Wavelength(s): 473 nm, 590 nmIntensity: 1-5 mW/mm^2Frequency: 2-10 Hz (1) Percent response: withdrawal, licking, jumping, vocalization; 5 trials of 20s duration each, with 3 min between trials, with 20s cutoff(2) Sensitization: Photostimulate Nav1.8-ChR2 neurons first, then use von Frey and Hargreaves assays aferwards(3) Conditioned Place Aversion: 5 min no light habituation -> 5 min light on (blue/orange) -> 5 min post-light observation (1) Dissociated DRG photocurrents(2) LTP in spinal cord (1) c-Fos nuclei in spinal cord w/ 10 min suprathreshold stimulation under anesthesia(2) Evans blue exstravasation
Iyer, S. M. et al. Virally mediated optogenetic excitation and inhibition of pain in freely moving nontransgenic mice. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 274–278 (2014). ChR2(H134R), NphR AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP, AAV6-hSyn-NpHR-eYFP, intrasciatic injection; Activation/Inhibition Small-sized neurons, mostly nociceptors CCI (1) Fiber coupled laser(2) LED-floor two-chamber apparatus Plantar hindpaw Wavelength(s): 473 nm, 590 nmIntensity: Blue: 1-6mW/mm^2,Yellow:1-1.7 mw/mm^2Frequency: Constant (1) Time to withdrawal (s)(2) Concurrent photostimulation + Von Frey or Hargreaves(3) Real-time place aversion with LED-floor two-chamber apparatus To begin the trial, the animal was required to: (1) be awake, (2) have all four paws on the floor and (3) be at rest, not prepar- ing to walk. Mice were habituate for 30 min in containers before testing
Draxler, P., Honsek, S. D., Forsthuber, L., Hadschieff, V. & Sandkühler, J. VGluT3⁺ primary afferents play distinct roles in mechanical and cold hypersensitivity depending on pain etiology. Journal of Neuroscience 34, 12015–12028 (2014). ChR2(H134R) Ai32 transgenic line Activation VGLUT3+ C-LTMRs Naïve, Carrageenan, Oxaliplatin, CCI Fiber-coupled LED (Thor) w/ 1000 um fiber Plantar hindpaw Wavelength(s): 470 nmIntensity: Blue: 60-80 mW/mm^2Frequency: Constant (1) Paw withdrawal latency (0-7 s)(2) Response Score (note 1) (1) The behavior of the mice was videotaped to determine the reaction latency and to evaluate the behavior of the animals with the following score; 0: no be- havior, 1: glancing at the paw, 2: paw with- drawal, 3: flinching, 4: paw shaking, 5: paw licking
Boada, M. D. et al. Fast-conducting mechanoreceptors contribute to withdrawal behavior in normal and nerve injured rats. PAIN 155, 2646–2655 (2014). Arch AAV8-CAG- ArchT-GFP Inhibition Myelinated, Fast-conducting, Hight-Threshold Mechanoreceptors (A-delta?) PSNL Fiber-coupled Laser Plantar hindpaw, DRG Wavelength(s): 532 nmIntensity: 532 nm: 0-0.4mW/mm^2Frequency: Constant (1) Paw withdrawal threshold w/ VF +/- light (inhibition) (1) Dissociated DRG : RMP, Rheobase +/- light(2) In vivo DRG intracellular recording +/- light + stimulus (VF)
Montgomery, K. L. et al. Wirelessly powered, fully internal optogenetics for brain, spinal and peripheral circuits in mice. Nat Meth 12, 969–974 (2015). ChR2(H134R) AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP, intrasciatic injection; Activation Small-sized neurons, mostly nociceptors None Wireless, internal LED Ankle skin Wavelength(s): 473 nmIntensity: 473 nm: 10 mW/mm^2Pulse width: 10 msFrequency: 10 Hz (1) Two-chamber real-time aversion assay; time spent in chamber (s)
Park, S. I. et al. Soft, stretchable, fully implantable miniaturized optoelectronic systems for wireless optogenetics. Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 1280–1286 (2015). ChR2(H134R) Ai32 transgenic line Activation (1) TRPV1-ChR2: Mixed nociceptors(2) Advillin-ChR2: All sensory neurons(3) Nav1.8-ChR2: Most nociceptors None (1) Epidural, soft, wireless LED(2) Nerve-touching, soft-wireless device Spinal cord, Sciatic Nerve Wavelength(s): 470Intensity: 470 nm: 10 mW/mm^2Pulse width: N/AFrequency: 10 Hz (1) Real-time place aversion in Y-maze: Light on, light off arm -> Observe time spent in each arm (note 1)(2) Nocifensive behaviors: Duration and frequency of nofensive behaviors Behavior: Y–maze. Place aversion was tested in two arms of a Y-maze constructed of plexiglass with a layer of corn cob bedding. Each arm of the maze was 10 cm wide × 100 cm long and was marked with either vertical or horizontal black stripes with a neutral area between the arms. To generate the RF signal, one antenna was located below an arm of the maze allowing for the control of LED devices through the maze floor and a second antenna was positioned on the side of the same arm to ensure complete local field cover- age. To begin the experimental protocol, a mouse was placed in the neutral area of the maze and was continuously monitored and recorded through a video connection for 20 min. During this time an experimenter blinded to the genotype manually controlled the RF signal by watching the monitoring system. Upon entry of the mouse into the “ON” chamber, activation of the LED device through the RF antenna was initiated; likewise, upon departure from the “ON” chamber RF activation was terminated. Video data were col- lected and time-in-chamber was analyzed using Ethovision software (Noldus, Leesburg, VA.).

This is a Wiki post - So anyone can contribute. I’m going to update to make more comprehensive. right now, I’m limiting to peripheral inputs (Sensory neurons).